Before requesting an imaging investigation, the referring doctor must ask him/herself the following questions:

  • Pierce, D A et al. Studies of the Mortality of A-Bomb Survivors. Radiation Research, 1996. 146: 1-27.

  • Mathews J.D. et al. Cancer risk in 680,000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians. BMJ, 2013. 346:f2360

  • National Safety Council, Odds of Dying. 2019.

  • Vilar-Palop, J. et al. Updated effective doses in radiology. J Radiol Prot, 2016. 36: 975–990.

  • Brenner, D.J. and Hall, E.J., Computed Tomography — An Increasing Source of Radiation Exposure. N Engl J Med, 2007. 357: 2277-2284.

  • Berrington de Gonzalez, A. and Darby, S. Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries. Lancet, 2004. 363(9406): 345-51.

  • Lehnert B.E. and Bree R.L., Analysis of appropriateness of outpatient CT and MRI referred from Primary Care Clinics at an Academic Medical Center: How critical is the need for improved decision support? J Am Coll Radiol, 2010. 7: 192-7.

Further Reading

  • ARPANSA, Ionising radiation in our everyday environment. 2021.

  • National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. NCRP Report No. 160, 2009.

  • Amis, E.S., Jr., et al. American College of Radiology white paper on radiation dose in medicine. J Am Coll Radiol, 2007. 4(5): 272-84.

  • Teunen, D. The European Directive on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposures (97/43/EURATOM). J Radiol Prot, 1998. 18(2): 133-7.

  • Davies, HE et al, Risks of exposure to radiological imaging and how to minimise them. Brit Med J, 2011. 344: 589-93.